Modern India - Minto Morley Reforms Home Rule Movement Study Notes

Modern Indian History PSC Online Study Notes Download Minto Morley Reforms 1909, Home Rule Movement 1916, August Declaration 1917

Minto - Morley Reforms – 1909

Minto Morley Reforms 1909

  • The Indian National Congress (INC) was also agitating for more reforms and self-governance of Indians.
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale met Morley in England to emphasize the need for reforms.
  • Shimla Deputation: A group of elite Muslims led by Aga Khan met Lord Minto in 1906 and placed their demand for a separate electorate for the Muslims.
  • John Morley was a member of the Liberal government and he wanted to make positive changes in India’s governance.
  • Minto, the Viceroy and Morley, the Secretary of State for India jointly proposed reforms to the Indian Councils. 
  • An Act, called the Indian Councils Act or the Minto - Morley Reforms Act was passed in 1909. 
  • It introduced reforms in the functioning of the Indian Councils. 
  • It increased the number of elected members in the Councils. 
  • A separate communal electorate was introduced for the Muslims. 
  • It was strongly disapproved by the Congress.
  • The Act introduced communal representation in Indian politics - dividing the people into communal lines.

The First World War 1914 – 1918

  • The First World War broke-out in 1914. 
  • The British Government wanted India to participate in the war on behalf of Britain. 
  • Even though the leaders were unwilling in the beginning, they did not object to Indian soldiers taking part in the war.

Lucknow Session–1916

  • Two important historic developments took place in the Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress. 
  • Moderates and the Extremists joined together. They presented a united front. 
  • Congress and the Muslim League signed a pact agreeing to Co-operate with each other in order to achieve self government.
  • The signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity

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    • Lucknow Pact,1916
      • An agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah

The Home Rule Movement (1916)

  • Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. 
  • The aim of the Movement was to get self government for India within the British Empire.
  •  The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule. 
  • While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie Besant’s Movement covered the rest of the country
  • Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das supported the movement. 
  • Dr. Annie Besant created tremendous enthusiasm among the people by her speeches and writings. Her paper New India was banned.
  • Both the leaders Tilak and Annie Besant were arrested

August Declaration (Offer) - 1917

  • On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British Government’s policy towards future political reforms in India. 
  • He promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in India. 
  • This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule Movement.



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Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights: Modern India - Minto Morley Reforms Home Rule Movement Study Notes
Modern India - Minto Morley Reforms Home Rule Movement Study Notes
Modern Indian History PSC Online Study Notes Download Minto Morley Reforms 1909, Home Rule Movement 1916, August Declaration 1917
Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights
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