Modern India - Minto Morley Reforms Home Rule Movement Study Notes

Modern Indian History PSC Online Study Notes Download Minto Morley Reforms 1909, Home Rule Movement 1916, August Declaration 1917


Minto - Morley Reforms – 1909

Minto Morley Reforms 1909

  • The Indian National Congress (INC) was also agitating for more reforms and self-governance of Indians.
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale met Morley in England to emphasize the need for reforms.
  • Shimla Deputation: A group of elite Muslims led by Aga Khan met Lord Minto in 1906 and placed their demand for a separate electorate for the Muslims.
  • John Morley was a member of the Liberal government and he wanted to make positive changes in India’s governance.
  • Minto, the Viceroy and Morley, the Secretary of State for India jointly proposed reforms to the Indian Councils. 
  • An Act, called the Indian Councils Act or the Minto - Morley Reforms Act was passed in 1909. 
  • It introduced reforms in the functioning of the Indian Councils. 
  • It increased the number of elected members in the Councils. 
  • A separate communal electorate was introduced for the Muslims. 
  • It was strongly disapproved by the Congress.
  • The Act introduced communal representation in Indian politics - dividing the people into communal lines.
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The First World War 1914 – 1918

  • The First World War broke-out in 1914. 
  • The British Government wanted India to participate in the war on behalf of Britain. 
  • Even though the leaders were unwilling in the beginning, they did not object to Indian soldiers taking part in the war.

Lucknow Session–1916

  • Two important historic developments took place in the Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress. 
  • Moderates and the Extremists joined together. They presented a united front. 
  • Congress and the Muslim League signed a pact agreeing to Co-operate with each other in order to achieve self government.
  • The signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity

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    • Lucknow Pact,1916
      • An agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah

The Home Rule Movement (1916)

  • Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. 
  • The aim of the Movement was to get self government for India within the British Empire.
  •  The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule. 
  • While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie Besant’s Movement covered the rest of the country
  • Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das supported the movement. 
  • Dr. Annie Besant created tremendous enthusiasm among the people by her speeches and writings. Her paper New India was banned.
  • Both the leaders Tilak and Annie Besant were arrested

August Declaration (Offer) - 1917

  • On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British Government’s policy towards future political reforms in India. 
  • He promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in India. 
  • This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule Movement.
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Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights: Modern India - Minto Morley Reforms Home Rule Movement Study Notes
Modern India - Minto Morley Reforms Home Rule Movement Study Notes
Modern Indian History PSC Online Study Notes Download Minto Morley Reforms 1909, Home Rule Movement 1916, August Declaration 1917
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