Modern Indian History PSC Online Study Notes Download Minto Morley Reforms 1909, Home Rule Movement 1916, August Declaration 1917
Minto - Morley Reforms – 1909
- The Indian National Congress (INC) was also agitating for more reforms and self-governance of Indians.
- Gopal Krishna Gokhale met Morley in England to emphasize the need for reforms.
- Shimla Deputation: A group of elite Muslims led by Aga Khan met Lord Minto in 1906 and placed their demand for a separate electorate for the Muslims.
- John Morley was a member of the Liberal government and he wanted to make positive changes in India’s governance.
- Minto, the Viceroy and Morley, the Secretary of State for India jointly proposed reforms to the Indian Councils.
- An Act, called the Indian Councils Act or the Minto - Morley Reforms Act was passed in 1909.
- It introduced reforms in the functioning of the Indian Councils.
- It increased the number of elected members in the Councils.
- A separate communal electorate was introduced for the Muslims.
- It was strongly disapproved by the Congress.
- The Act introduced communal representation in Indian politics - dividing the people into communal lines.
The First World War 1914 – 1918
- The First World War broke-out in 1914.
- The British Government wanted India to participate in the war on behalf of Britain.
- Even though the leaders were unwilling in the beginning, they did not object to Indian soldiers taking part in the war.
- Two important historic developments took place in the Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress.
- Moderates and the Extremists joined together. They presented a united front.
- Congress and the Muslim League signed a pact agreeing to Co-operate with each other in order to achieve self government.
- The signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity
- Lucknow Pact,1916
- An agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah
The Home Rule Movement (1916)
- Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916.
- The aim of the Movement was to get self government for India within the British Empire.
- The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule.
- While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie Besant’s Movement covered the rest of the country
- Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das supported the movement.
- Dr. Annie Besant created tremendous enthusiasm among the people by her speeches and writings. Her paper New India was banned.
- Both the leaders Tilak and Annie Besant were arrested
August Declaration (Offer) - 1917
- On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British Government’s policy towards future political reforms in India.
- He promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in India.
- This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule Movement.