Partition of Bengal 1905, Swadeshi Movement 1905, Formation of Muslim League 1906, Surat Split 1907 PSC Study Materials
Partition of Bengal in 1905
- The partition of Bengal in 1905 provided a spark for the rise of extremism in the Indian National Movement.
- On the same day when the partition came into effect, 16 October 1905, the people of Bengal organized protest meetings
- The whole political life of Bengal underwent a change.
- The anti-partition movement culminated into the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other parts of India.
- Viceroy during Partition of Bengal - Lord Curzon
Swadeshi Movement 1905
- Partition of Bengal paved the way for the birth of the Swadeshi Movement, an economic boycott.
- Swadeshi, literally means of “one’s own country”. It aimed at the promotion of native industries.
- Inspired by Swadeshi movement, many people boycotted British goods, especially textiles. They promote, indigenous industries.
- They collected the foreign clothes and burnt them to ashes in the central parts of the cities.
- A large number of young men left their studies and joined this movement
- They adopted the Slogan Vande Matharam
- In the South, V.O. Chidambaram Pillai of Tuticorin, popularly known as V.O.C., established the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company for carrying trade between India and Ceylon.
- The Swadeshi Movement was a great success.
- In Bengal, even the landlords joined the movement.
- The women and students took to picketing. Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
- Extremist leaders Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.
Formation of the Muslim League – 1906
- The foundation of Indian National Congress created a fear among the Muslims.
- A large number of educated Muslims also felt the need for a separate organization to represent the interests of the Muslims.
- The British who followed the policy of Divide and Rule accepted the demand of the Muslims.
- The Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Salimullah Khan, the Nawab of Dacca, in 1906.
- The Muslim League aimed to protect the rights of the Muslims and to remain loyal to the British Government
Surat Split 1907
- The aggressive nationalists forced Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta Session of Congress in 1906.
- They adopted the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi.
- The Moderate Congressmen were unhappy. They wanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods.
- The differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907.
- Rift arose between them over the election of the Congress President at the Surat Session in 1907.
- Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh was elected in the session but extremists had an objection to this election.
- In 1907, Surat Session: The two main objectives placed by the extremists were
- Demand for the resolution of Swaraj
- Lala Lajpat Rai to be made the President of the INC
- The Extremist camp was led by Lal Bal Pal and the moderate camp was led by Gopal Krishna Gokhle.
- The extremists came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.