Modern India Partition of Bengal Swadeshi Movement PSC Study Materials

Partition of Bengal 1905, Swadeshi Movement 1905, Formation of Muslim League 1906, Surat Split 1907 PSC Study Materials

Partition of Bengal

Partition of Bengal in 1905

Partition of Bengal 1905

  • The partition of Bengal in 1905 provided a spark for the rise of extremism in the Indian National Movement.
  • On the same day when the partition came into effect, 16 October 1905, the people of Bengal organized protest meetings 
  • The whole political life of Bengal underwent a change. 
  • The anti-partition movement culminated into the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other parts of India.
  • Viceroy during Partition of Bengal - Lord Curzon

Swadeshi Movement 1905

  • Partition of Bengal paved the way for the birth of the Swadeshi Movement, an economic boycott. 
  • Swadeshi, literally means of “one’s own country”. It aimed at the promotion of native industries.
  • Inspired by Swadeshi movement, many people boycotted British goods, especially textiles. They promote, indigenous industries. 
  • They collected the foreign clothes and burnt them to ashes in the central parts of the cities.
  • A large number of young men left their studies and joined this movement
  • They adopted the Slogan Vande Matharam 
  • In the South, V.O. Chidambaram Pillai of Tuticorin, popularly known as V.O.C., established the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company for carrying trade between India and Ceylon.
  • The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. 
  • In Bengal, even the landlords joined the movement. 
  • The women and students took to picketing. Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
Swadeshi Movement

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      • Extremist leaders Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.

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Formation of the Muslim League – 1906

Formation of Muslim League 1906

  • The foundation of Indian National Congress created a fear among the Muslims. 
  • A large number of educated Muslims also felt the need for a separate organization to represent the interests of the Muslims. 
  • The British who followed the policy of Divide and Rule accepted the demand of the Muslims. 
  • The Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Salimullah Khan, the Nawab of Dacca, in 1906. 
  • The Muslim League aimed to protect the rights of the Muslims and to remain loyal to the British Government

Surat Split 1907

  • The aggressive nationalists forced Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta Session of Congress in 1906. 
  • They adopted the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. 
  • The Moderate Congressmen were unhappy.  They wanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. 
  • The differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907.
  • Rift arose between them over the election of the Congress President at the Surat Session in 1907.
  • Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh was elected in the session but  extremists had an objection to this election.
  • In 1907, Surat Session: The two main objectives placed by the extremists were 
    • Demand for the resolution of Swaraj
    • Lala Lajpat Rai to be made the President of the INC
  • The Extremist camp was led by Lal Bal Pal and the moderate camp was led by Gopal Krishna Gokhle.
  • The extremists came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Lal Bal Pal


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Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights: Modern India Partition of Bengal Swadeshi Movement PSC Study Materials
Modern India Partition of Bengal Swadeshi Movement PSC Study Materials
Partition of Bengal 1905, Swadeshi Movement 1905, Formation of Muslim League 1906, Surat Split 1907 PSC Study Materials
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