Emergence of Indian Nationalism and Early Political Associations

Emergence of Indian Nationalism and Factors leading to the emergence of Indian Nationalism, Early Political Associations

Emergence of Indian Nationalism

  • The period after the great revolt of 1857 was a period of disappointment. 
  • The promises made by Queen Victoria in her proclamation were never kept. 
  • Indians realized that foreign rule was the real barrier to India’s economic, political and cultural progress. 
  • The growth of Indian Nationalism started in this period. 
  • The religious and social reform movements contributed to its further development.
Indian Nationalism and Early political Associations

Factors leading to the emergence of Indian Nationalism

Political unity
Economic Exploitation by the British
Contact with other European Nations
Social and Religious movements
Development of Communication and Transport
Press and newspapers

Political unity

  • Political unity
  • British rule brought about the political unification of the country. It enabled the people to think India as one nation. 
  • The social and religious reform movements also brought awakening and the people together.

Economic Exploitation by the British

  • The aim of the British was to drain the wealth of India to their country. 
  • Towards the end of the 19th Century India became an exporter of raw materials and a market for British finished products. 
  • It was also a place for investing British capital to make profit.

Contact with other European Nations

  • English language became the language of the educated Indians. Indians came in contact with the ideas and culture of western countries. 
  • Moreover the Indians were motivated by the unification of Germany and Italy. Hence they wanted to fight for their freedom.

Social and Religious movements

  • Raja Rammohan Roy, Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Swami Vivekananda and Dr. Annie Besant revived the glory of India and the Indians. 
  • They did the spade work for the birth of the national movement in India. 
  • Dayananda Saraswathi was the first Indian who used the word Swaraj.

Development of Communication and Transport

  • Railways, telegraphs, wireless, postal services, construction of roads and canals helped industrial growth. The industrial growth united the people of India.
  • Press and newspapers

Press and newspapers

  • Indian press played an important role in the growth and spread of Nationalism. 
  • A large number of newspapers were published in different regional languages. Most of these papers were anti-British
  • They echoed the public opinion and developed a national outlook among the masses.
  • The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 curbed the freedom of the press. The Arms Act of 1878 forbade the possession of arms by Indians. 
  • It was in these circumstances that the Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 to fight for the rights of the Indians.

Early Political Associations

  • The British Indian Association (1851): First political organization from Bengal that brought the Indians together. The President of the first committee of this organization was Raja Radhakanta Deb, while Debendranath Tagore was its secretary. The newspaper of this society was “Hindu patriot” 
  • The Bombay Association (1852): The first political association in Bombay presidency was founded by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1852, to express public grievances to the British.
  •  Madras Native Association (1852): The first organization in the Madras Presidency which was established by Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty as a platform for educated Indians to protest against any injustice on the part of the British
  • London Indian Society (1865): Four students Pherozeshah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, W. C. Bonnerjee and Manmohan Ghose had established the London Indian Society in 1865
  • East India Association (1866): Organization established by some Indian students in London on 1 October 1866 on initiative of Dadabhai Naoroji. It was one of the predecessor organizations of the Indian National Congress. 
  • Poona Sarvojanik Sabha (1870): Mediating body between the government and people of India and to popularize the peasants' legal rights. It was formed in 1870 by S. H. Chiplunkar, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi, Mahadev Govind Ranade
  • The Madras Mahajana Sabha (1884): An organization at All India level to relieve and free the nation from the clutches of British rule and solve the problems of Indians. S.Ramaswami Mudaliar, P. Rangaiah Naidu and P. Anandacharlu established the Madras Mahajana Sabha in 1884

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Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights: Emergence of Indian Nationalism and Early Political Associations
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