Jallianwalabagh Khilafat Movement Amritsar Session 1919

Important Events in Modern Indian History Jallianwalabagh, Khilafat Movement, Amritsar Session 1919

Jallianwalabagh Massacre, 13 April 1919

  • Two prominent leaders Satyapal and Saifuddin Kichlew were arrested in the Punjab in connection with the hartal against Rowlatt Act. 
  • The people of Amritsar assembled in a park in Jallianwala to protest against the unlawful arrest. 
  • This park was surrounded by high walls on all the sides with a small entrance in one side and a well in the center. 
  • General Dyer, the military commander of Amritsar, ordered his troops to block the entrance. 
  • Viceroy Lord Chelmsford
  • British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Michael O'Dwyer
  • Acting Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer
  • Then he ordered them to shoot on the peaceful and unarmed crowd without any warning. 
  • There were many women and children. There was a virtual massacre. About 379 persons were killed and 1137 people wounded.
  • This incident is called as the Jallianwalabagh massacre or Punjab Tragedy. 
  • Gandhi condemned this incident. He became a non-cooperator with the British Government. He emerged prominent. 
  • He launched the Non-Co-operation movement in 1920.

PROTESTS

Rabindranath Tagore renounced his Knighthood as a measure of protest. 

Gandhiji returned the Kaiser-i-Hind medal given to him by the South African Government.
The Hunter Commission

The Khilafat Movement - 1919

  • The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Germany and Turkey in the First World War.
  • Turkey was an ally of Germany in the First World War. After the defeat of Germany in the war, the Turkish empire was broken up (Treaty of Sevres) 
  • The territories were shared by Britain and France. The Sultan of Turkey was humiliated. 
  • The Sultan was also the Caliph or the religious leader of the Muslims. 
  • So the Muslims all over the world started the Khilafat movement against the British Government. 
  • The Ali brothers - Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started the Khilafat Movement in India. 
  • The Congress supported this movement. 
  • Gandhi thought that it was an opportunity for uniting the Hindus and the Muslims. 
  • The Khilafat movement brought the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress closer.
  • Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.
  • A Khilafat Committee had been formed and on 19th October 1919, the whole country had observed the Khilafat day. 
  • On 23 November, a joint conference of the Hindus and the Muslims had also been held under the chairmanship of Mahatma Gandhi. 
  • Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
  • Gandhiji transformed the Congress into a mass movement.

Amritsar Session -1919

  • By holding its 34th Session at Amritsar in 1919, the Congress expressed its deep solidarity with the people killed in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
  • Under the presidentship of Motilal Nehru, the Congress condemned the massacre in the strongest of terms.

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Jallianwalabagh Khilafat Movement Amritsar Session 1919
Important Events in Modern Indian History Jallianwalabagh, Khilafat Movement, Amritsar Session 1919
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