Nehru Report 1928 Civil Disobedient Movement Salt Satyagraha 1930
Nehru Report -1928
- Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution that would be acceptable to all.
- The challenge was accepted by the Congress, which convened an all party meeting on 28 February 1928.
- A committee consisting of eight was constituted to draw up a blueprint for the future Constitution of India.
- It was headed by Motilal Nehru. The Report published by this Committee came to be known as the Nehru Report.
- The Report favored:
- Dominion Status as the next immediate step – within 2 years
- Full responsible government at the Centre.
- Autonomy to the provinces.
- Clear cut division of power between the Centre and the provinces.
- A bicameral legislature at the Centre.
- Separate electorates were refused and the reservation of seats for the Muslims of Bengal and Punjab was rejected.
- Mohammad Ali Jinnah regarded it as unfavorable to the interests of the Muslims.
- Jinnah convened an All India Conference of the Muslims where he drew up a list of Fourteen Points as Muslim League demand
Jinnah's 14 points
- These points covered all of the interests of the Muslims at a heated time and in this Jinnah stated that it was the "parting of ways" and that he did not want and would not have anything to do with the Indian National Congress in the future.
- The League leaders motivated Jinnah to revive the Muslim League and give it direction.
- As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims' thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.
- In March 1929, the Muslim League session was held at Delhi under the presidency of Jinnah and consolidated Muslim viewpoints under fourteen items and these fourteen points became Jinnah's 14 points
Calcutta session -1928
- During the Calcutta session, Gandhiji moved a resolution accepting the Motilal Nehru report's recommendation of Dominion Status within two years.
- However, Jawaharlal Nehru moved an amendment reiterating the Congress's commitment to independence.
- To arrive at a middle ground, the Congress gave the British a warning that a civil disobedience movement would start if India was not granted dominion status by December 31, 1929.
Lahore Session - 1929
- The Congress met at Lahore under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929.
- It passed a resolution demanding Complete Independence or Purna Swaraj from the British.
- Another resolution was also passed. According to it Civil Dis-obedience Movement was launched against the British.
- The session decided to observe January 26 every year as the Independence Day all over the country.
- Accordingly the Independence Day was observed on 26 January 1930 all over the country.
- The same date later became the Republic Day when the Indian Constitution was enforced in 1950
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934)
- In Lahore Session,1929 Congress gave the British a warning that a civil disobedience movement would start if India was not granted dominion status by December 31, 1929.
- Thus, the stage was set for the second major struggle led by the Congress.
- Civil Disobedience Movement was officially launched by breaking the salt laws called Salt Satyagraha of 1930
- The goal of this movement was complete independence. It was to be achieved by breaking the law.
Salt Satyagraha - 1930
- Government levied tax on common salt used by millions of people. Salt, available naturally, could not be used by all easily due to the tax.
- So Gandhi decided to defy the salt tax. He undertook the historic march to Dandi in Gujarat on 12 March 1930.
- On 12th March 1930, Gandhi began his famous March to Dandi with his chosen 79 followers to break the salt laws.
- He reached the coast of Dandi and on 6 April 1930 formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws.
- This incident sparked a mass movement throughout India. Women also participated in it.
- In South India Rajagopalachariar led the Salt march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranyam.
- In Malabar Coast, K Kelappan, a Congress leader, led the march from Calicut to Payyanur to violate the salt law.
- This movement is known as Salt Satyagraha or the Civil Dis-obedience Movement.
- There were countrywide demonstrations, harthals and boycott of foreign goods.
- People refused to pay tax.
- By the end of May 1930, all important leaders including Gandhi, Nehru and Rajaji were arrested.
- The people of the North Western Frontier Provinces also joined in this Civil Dis-obedience Movement.
- They were led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Frontier Gandhi.
- The Civil Dis-obedience movement induced Indians to defy the Government at all levels and make its functioning difficult and impossible.
- 1882 Salt Act
- which gave the British a monopoly on the collection, storage and trade of salt, and which levied a salt tax.