SOCIO RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS Rama Krishna Mission – 1897 Syed Ahmed Khan and Aligarh Movement
SOCIO RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS
- Raja Rammohan Roy and The Brahmo Samaj – 1828
- Swami Dayananda Saraswathi and The Arya Samaj – 1875
- Theosophical Society – 1875
- Rama Krishna Mission – 1897
- Syed Ahmed Khan and Aligarh Movement
- Parsi and Sikh Reform Movements
Rama Krishna Mission – 1897
- Rama Krishna Paramahamsa was a priest in a temple of Kali at Dakshineswar near Kolkata.
- He had deep faith in the basic truth of all religions. He preached the unity of all religions
- He explained the principles contained in the Vedas and Upanishads through simple stories, called parables.
- He stressed that every individual is a part of God. Therefore, according to him “service to man means service to God.”
- The credit of propagating his ideas goes to his great disciple, Swami Vivekananda.
- Swami Vivekananda’s childhood name was Narendra Nath.
- He was educated in English schools and graduated himself. He studied the works of the western philosophers.
- He was attracted and moved closer with Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
- After the death of Ramakrishna, Vivekananda carried the messages of his master all over India.
- According to Vivekananda, “The best way to Serve God is to serve the poor and the downtrodden.” It became his motto.
- He participated in the World Religious Congregation held at Chicago in the United States of America in 1893.
- Vivekananda raised the prestige of Indian culture and religion in the eyes of the world.
- Ramakrishna Mission was established in 1897 by Swami Vivekananda at Belur near Kolkata.
- It has branches all over India and the other parts of the world.
- The Missions’ motto is “Service to humanity”.
- It serves for the education, upliftment of women, removal of poverty among the poor and downtrodden.
Muslim Reform Movements
- For a long time, the Muslims remained outside the influence of western education and the British rule
- Reform movements among the Muslim community began in the later half of the 19th century.
- They aimed at the spread of modern education and removal of social abuses like the Purdha System and polygamy.
- In the beginning Mohammeden Literary Society of Kolkata was founded in 1863 by Nawab Abdul Latif.
- It played an important role in the spread of education among the Muslims and started a number of schools in Bengal.
Syed Ahmed Khan and Aligarh Movement
- The most important movement for the spread of modern education and social reforms among the Muslims was started by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
- He had been in the service of British Government as a judicial officer.
- He remained loyal to them during the revolt of 1857 and insisted on the co-operation of the Muslims with the British Government.
- Syed Ahmed Khan insisted the unity between the Hindus and Muslims.
- In 1864 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started a school at Ghazipur. It was later called as the Scientific Society.
- His greatest achievement was the establishment of the Mohammeden Anglo Oriental College (MAO) at Aligarh in 1875.
- It later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University.
- The reform movement started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was called the Aligarh Movement.
- He was in favor of the abolition of Purdah and education of women.
- He propagated his views through his magazine called Tahzil-ud-Akhlaq (Reform of Morals).