Modern Indian History Round Table Conference Gandhi Irwin Pact Poona Pact
First Round Table Conference - 1930
- The British could not suppress the Civil Dis-obedience Movement.
- As a conciliatory measure, they called for a Round Table Conference at London in 1930.
- The conference, chaired by the British PM, Ramsay MacDonald, discussed constitutional issues pertaining to India.
- It was not attended by the Congress leaders since they were all imprisoned.
- Total 74 delegates from India attended the Conference from other parties
Gandhi-Irwin Pact - 1931
- In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison.
- Gandhi was released in 1931. An agreement, known as the Gandhi-Irwin pact, was signed.
- According to it Gandhi agreed to call off the Civil Dis-obedience Movement.
- He also agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference on the condition of release of all political prisoners.
- However, the agreement did not provide for the release of revolutionary leaders like Bhagat Singh and Rajguru who were awaiting execution.
Second Round Table Conference - 1931
- The Second Round Table Conference was held in 1931 at London. Gandhi attended it.
- But there was no concrete outcome from that Conference. Gandhi came back to India.
- His efforts to meet the Viceroy failed and no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence
Revival of Civil Disobedience Movement 1932
- Lord Willingdon became the Viceroy in Nov 1931.
- He violated the Gandhi-Irwin Pact by repressing Congress and other nationalists.
- Hence, Congress revived the civil disobedience movement on January 1, 1932.
- The Congress was declared illegal by the British Government.
- Gandhi and other important Congressmen were imprisoned.
Delhi Session - 1932
- Despite Police vigilance, over 500 delegates attended the Congress session in Delhi in April 1932.
- Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, the President elect was arrested.
- Four resolutions were passed reiterating
- Complete Independence as the goal of the Congress
- Endorsing the revival of Civil Disobedience,
- Expressing complete faith in Gandhiji's leadership
- Reaffirming deep faith in non-violence.
Communal Award - 1932
- By 1930, Dr Ambedkar had become a leader of national stature championing the cause of the depressed people of the country.
- While presenting a real picture of the condition of these people in the First Round Table Conference, he had demanded separate electorates for them.
- On 16 August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement, which came to be as the Communal Award.
- According to this award, the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them.
Poona Pact- 1932
- Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
- Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi.
- This agreement came to be called as the Poona Pact. The British Government also approved of it.
- Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award.