Round Table Conference Gandhi Irwin Pact Poona Pact

Modern Indian History Round Table Conference Gandhi Irwin Pact Poona Pact

First Round Table Conference - 1930

  • The British could not suppress the Civil Dis-obedience Movement. 
  • As a conciliatory measure, they called for a Round Table Conference at London in 1930. 
  • The conference, chaired by the British PM, Ramsay MacDonald, discussed constitutional issues pertaining to India.
  • It was not attended by the Congress leaders since they were all imprisoned.
  • Total 74 delegates from India attended the Conference from other parties
Modern India Round Table Conferences

Gandhi-Irwin Pact - 1931

  • In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison.
  • Gandhi was released in 1931. An agreement, known as the Gandhi-Irwin pact, was signed.
  • According to it Gandhi agreed to call off the Civil Dis-obedience Movement. 
  • He also agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference on the condition of release of all political prisoners. 
  • However, the agreement did not provide for the release of revolutionary leaders like Bhagat Singh and Rajguru who were awaiting execution.

Second Round Table Conference - 1931

  • The Second Round Table Conference was held in 1931 at London. Gandhi attended it. 
  • But there was no concrete outcome from that Conference. Gandhi came back to India.
  • His efforts to meet the Viceroy failed and no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence

Revival of Civil Disobedience Movement 1932

  • Lord Willingdon became the Viceroy in Nov 1931. 
  • He violated the Gandhi-Irwin Pact by repressing Congress and other nationalists. 
  • Hence, Congress revived the civil disobedience movement on January 1, 1932.
  • The Congress was declared illegal by the British Government. 
  • Gandhi and other important Congressmen were imprisoned.

Delhi Session - 1932

  • Despite Police vigilance, over 500 delegates attended the Congress session in Delhi in April 1932. 
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, the President elect was arrested. 
  • Four resolutions were passed reiterating
    • Complete Independence as the goal of the Congress
    • Endorsing the revival of Civil Disobedience, 
    • Expressing complete faith in Gandhiji's leadership 
    • Reaffirming deep faith in non-violence.

Communal Award - 1932

  • By 1930, Dr Ambedkar had become a leader of national stature championing the cause of the depressed people of the country. 
  • While presenting a real picture of the condition of these people in the First Round Table Conference, he had demanded separate electorates for them. 
  • On 16 August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement, which came to be as the Communal Award. 
  • According to this award, the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them. 

Poona Pact- 1932

  • Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
  • Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi. 
  • This agreement came to be called as the Poona Pact. The British Government also approved of it. 
  • Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award.



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Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights: Round Table Conference Gandhi Irwin Pact Poona Pact
Round Table Conference Gandhi Irwin Pact Poona Pact
Modern Indian History Round Table Conference Gandhi Irwin Pact Poona Pact
Kerala Administrative Service (KAS) Online Class Study Notes Tests | KAS Insights
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