Simon Commission 1927 and Bardoli Satyagraha 1928 Important Points to remember for Exams
- Belgaum Session - 1924
- MK Gandhi was the president of 39th Congress Session held at Belgaum.
- Kanpur Session - 1925
- Sarojini Naidu became the second woman to preside over the Congress after Annie Besant.
Simon Commission - 1927
- The Act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. However, the review commission was appointed
- It came to be known as Simon Commission after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon.
- All its seven members were Englishmen. As there was no Indian member in it, the Commission faced a lot of criticism even before its landing in India.
- The Congress Party decided to boycott the Commission at their session at Madras in 1927
- Almost all the political parties including the Congress decided to oppose the Commission.
- On the fateful day of 3 February 1928 when the Commission reached Bombay, a general hartal was observed all over the country.
- Everywhere it was greeted with black flags and the cries of ‘Simon go back’.
- At Lahore, the students took out a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai.
- In this demonstration, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge and he passed away after one month.
- The report of the Simon Commission was published in May 1930.
- It was stated that the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful and in its place the report recommended the establishment of autonomous government.
- Simon Commission’s Report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act of 1935.
- Clement Atlee was a member of the Commission. He was Britain’s Prime Minister during Indian independence and partition in 1947
Bardoli Satyagraha - 1928
- The government of the Bombay Presidency had raised the tax rate by 30% that year, and despite petitions from civic groups, refused to cancel the rise in the face of the calamities.
- The situation for the farmers was grave enough that they barely had enough property and crops to pay off the tax, let alone for feeding themselves afterwards.
- On February 6, 1928, Sardar Patel under Gandhi's leadership launched a Satyagraha in Bardoli
- It continued up till August 6, 1928, when an agreement was arrived at with the government.
- Its success gave rise to Patel becoming one of the main leaders of the independence movement